Background and Aim
Adherence to medications prescribed after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is low. Wireless technology and behavioral economic approaches have shown promise in improving health behaviors.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether a system of medication reminders using financial incentives and social support delays subsequent vascular events in patients following AMI compared with usual care.
Intervention and Design
Design was a health plan–intermediated intervention for members of several health plans. They recruited 1509 participants from 7179 contacted AMI survivors (insured with 5 large US insurers nationally or with Medicare fee-for-service at the University of Pennsylvania Health System). Patients aged 18 to 80 years were eligible if currently prescribed at least 2 of 4 study medications (statin, aspirin, β-blocker, antiplatelet agent), and were hospital inpatients for 1 to 180 days and discharged home with a principal diagnosis of AMI.
Interventions - Patients were randomized 2:1 to an intervention using electronic pill bottles combined with lottery incentives and social support for medication adherence (1003 patients), or to usual care (506 patients).
Main Outcomes and Measures - Primary outcome was time to first vascular rehospitalization or death. Secondary outcomes were time to first all-cause rehospitalization, total number of repeated hospitalizations, medication adherence, and total medical costs.
Way to Health Use
Study Enrollment: Enroll patients through the platform
Block Stratification Randomization: Randomize at a 2:1 ration using blocks stratified by insurance provider
Device Integration: Collect data from participants’ wireless pill bottles
Support Partners: Enlist a support/feedback partner for reinforcement
Findings and Conclusions
A total of 35.5% of participants were female (n = 536); mean (SD) age was 61.0 (10.3) years. There were no statistically significant differences between study arms in time to first rehospitalization for a vascular event or death (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.52; P = .84), time to first all-cause rehospitalization (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.09; P = .27), or total number of repeated hospitalizations (hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.60 to 1.48; P = .79). Mean (SD) medication adherence did not differ between control (0.42 [0.39]) and intervention (0.46 [0.39]) (difference, 0.04; 95% CI, −0.01 to 0.09; P = .10). Mean (SD) medical costs in 12 months following enrollment did not differ between control ($29 811 [$74 850]) and intervention ($24 038 [$66 915]) (difference, −$5773; 95% CI, −$13 682 to $2137; P = .15).
A compound intervention integrating wireless pill bottles, lottery-based incentives, and social support did not significantly improve medication adherence or vascular readmission outcomes for AMI survivors.